Promoting equality

Different types of discrimination

There are several different types of discrimination:

Sexism is defined as any act, gesture, visual representation, spoken or written words, practice or behaviour based upon the idea that a person or group of persons is inferior because of their sex, which occurs in the public
or private sphere, whether online or offline, with the effect of:

Violating the inherent dignity or rights
of a person or group of persons; or

Resulting in physical, sexual, psychological or socio-economic harm or suffering to a person or a group of persons; or

Creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment; or

Constituting a barrier to the autonomy and full
realisation of human rights by a person
or a group of persons; or

Maintaining and reinforcing gender stereotypes.


Discrimination on the basis of sex more often
affects women than men.
Women receive less pay than men for equal work,
enjoy more limited career progression and experience
difficulties in reaching some positions
of responsibility due to their sex.

They can also be subjected to harassment and contempt
from their male colleagues at work.

Some women encounter discrimination at work when they become pregnant. Their employer may seek to make them redundant or refuse to renew their employment contract.

When applying for a new position, women can also be discriminated. In fact, some employers prefer hiring somebody else to avoid any inconvenience associated with pregnancy or a woman’s future child.

The law in Monaco

Act No. 948, dated 19 April 1974,

supplementing and amending Act No. 739, dated 16 March 1963, on salaries, with regard to equal pay for men and women.


Sovereign Ordinance No. 96, dated 16 June 2005, giving effect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979.


Sovereign Ordinance No. 7.155, dated 10 October 2018, on the award of family allowances to civil servants and employees of the State and Commune.


Ministerial Decree No. 2019-558, dated 2 July 2019, setting the length of maternity leave


Reference texts

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18th December 1979.


Reference figures

Focus IMSEE – Place of women in businesses  (january 2019)



Focus IMSEE – Female employees in the private sector (july 2021)



Focus IMSEE – Women and corporate governance (march 2022)